Osobnosť a šport

Byť osobnosťou v športe je výhodou aj nevýhodou. Ak je niekto osobnosťou, kladie si otázky a hľadá na ne odpovede. Nečaká pasívne, čo mu povedia druhí, ale sám ide za niečím. Osobnosť je iniciatívna sama od seba. Môže sa vás spýtať, či šport má nejaký význam, či je dobrý pre vzťahy medzi ľuďmi, aké má šance uspieť v športovej kariére, a pod. Osobnosť sa nenechá ľahko “opiť rožkom“, chce presvedčivé argumenty. Pre každého je práca so silnou osobnosťou zložitá a pre niektorých trénerov je dokonca nemožná. Tréner, ktorý chce rozvíjať športovca so silnou osobnosťou, musí mať sám silnú osobnosť, pretože inak ho nepresvedčí. Ľahšie je trénovať  športovca, ktorý poslušne vykonáva, čo sa mu povie. Športovec so slabou osobnosťou, ak nedosiahne úspech, ktorý predpokladal, rýchlo sa osobnostne “rozpadáva“. Prestáva si veriť, začne klásť vinu na tých, ktorým dovtedy veril a poslúchal ich.  Silného športovca neúspech nezloží, ale naopak ho posilní. Ak ho tréner presvedčí o správnosti spoločnej cesty, je s ním radosť pracovať. Silná osobnosť chce  dosahovať úspech prostredníctvom vlastných rozhodnutí, za ktorými si stojí.

Či sa dá silná osobnosť rozvíjať? To je zložitá otázka. Bolo vypracovaných mnoho teórií, ale každá kladie dôraz na niečo iné. Napríklad štúdium jednovaječných dvojčiat ukázalo, že už  v prenatálnom vývine v maternici jedno dieťa utláča to druhé. Znamená to, že také dieťa bude mať silnejšiu osobnosť? Možno. Odhliadnuc od genetickej výbavy a prenatálneho vývinu sa psychologické teórie zhodujú na troch spôsoboch rozvíjania osobnosti. Je to prostredie, výchova a formujúce zážitky.

Prostredie. Ak máme prostredie špecifické určitými výzvami a náročnosťou, potom každý organizmus, ktorý chce prežiť, sa musí adaptovať na toto prostredie. Napr. prostredie náročné rozmanitosťou ľudí, vzťahov a komunikácie rozvíja emocionálnu inteligenciu. Fyzicky náročné prostredie rozvíja fyzickú i mentálnu odolnosť. Pre športový rozvoj treba prostredie spojené s pohybovými aktivitami a športovými zážitkami. K tomu patrí aj sociálne prostredie, kde je zdravá konkurencia medzi rovesníkmi. Žiaľ niekedy sa zdá, že tréneri by radšej vychovávali šampiónov v inkubátoroch či laboratóriách než v prirodzenej konkurencii rovesníkov.

Ranná výchova. Čím skôr uplatňujeme cielenú výchovu, tým viac môžeme ovplyvniť osobnosť, pretože dieťa je oveľa vnímavejšie a adaptabilnejšie než dospelý. V cielenej výchove sa učí určitým spôsobom reagovať, z čoho sa časom stanú návyky, ktoré sú buď správne alebo nesprávne. Vývinové štúdie ukázali, že existujú tzv. “senzitívne štádiá”, kedy sa dá maximalizovať rozvoj určitých schopností. Ak štádium premeškáme, daná schopnosť sa už v plnej miere nerozvinie. Výchovné princípy v športe sú zmienené podrobnejšie v minulých príspevkoch ( Kedy a ako začať so športom, Čo je najdôležitejšie pri športových začiatkoch).

Dospievanie. Ďalším zásadným obdobím rozvoja osobnosti je puberta. Dieťa sa vtedy fakticky mení na dospelého človeka po fyzickej aj psychickej stránke. Snaží sa vymaniť z kruhu rodičovskej autority, aby sa naučilo konať samostatne a preberať  vlastnú zodpovednosť. Nejeden rodič zažíva v tejto fáze sústavný strach buď vo forme obáv o vlastné dieťa (materinský strach) alebo ako zvyšovanie prísnosti (otcovská autorita), prípadne oboje. Rodičovské správanie má často kompulzívny (nutkavý) charakter. Niektorí rodičia si radšej pripútajú dieťa k sebe na celý život než aby mu dovolili slobodne dospieť. Dospievanie je dlhý proces, ktorý je sprevádzaný chybami, po ktorých má nasledovať uvedomenie a poučenie sa. Od rodičov to vyžaduje veľkú dávku trpezlivosti a tolerancie.

Úskalia výchovy vo vrcholovom športe. Vo vrcholovom športe sa rodičia či tréneri snažia  tínedžerské tápanie čo najviac obmedziť z obavy,  že by im ušiel vlak zvyšujúcej sa konkurencie. Výsledkom je, že na vrchole nachádzame síce pohybovo zázračné víťaziace deti, ale osobnostne ostávajú stále deťmi. Po odchode zo športovej scény sú v živote bezradní a neustále vyžadujú vedľa seba  nejakú autoritu (rodič-expert-radca-partner), ktorú raz bezvýhradne rešpektujú alebo ju odmietajú na základe zažitej role poslušného resp. vzdorovitého dieťaťa. Ak sa tomu chceme vyhnúť, mali by sme mladých športovcov viesť postupne k dospelosti, teda nechať ich robiť aj vlastné rozhodnutia a prevziať za to zodpovednosť.

Formujúce zážitky. V živote človeka občas prídu momenty, ktoré výrazne urýchlia alebo naopak zabrzdia rozvoj osobnosti. V pozitívnom smere sú to aha-zážitky pochopenia zmyslu alebo správnosti  vlastného života. Zážitok môže človeku pomôcť k rozhodnutiu, čo chce naozaj v živote robiť. Vedie k ujasneniu si hodnôt a priorít a k pozitívnej motivácii (smerovať k niečomu subjektívne hodnotnému). V opačnom prípade môže ísť o traumatické skúsenosti spojené s frustráciou, čo vyvoláva negatívnu motiváciu (ujsť od niečoho nepríjemného). Obidva druhy zážitkov majú zásadný vplyv na osobnosť a niektoré psychologické školy (napr. psychoanalýza) sa tejto oblasti terapeuticky venujú. Ak niekto vníma seba len ako „nositeľa športového výkonu“, má život ako na hojdačke. Každý neúspech berie ako osobnú tragédiu a najmä záver kariéry sa snaží za každú cenu čo najviac oddialiť. Obáva sa, že stratí zmysel života a stane sa pre svoje okolie a sám pre seba bezcenným.

Osobnosť a mentálny tréning. Mentálny tréning by mal byť zameraný nielen na zvládanie hlavy počas súťaže, ale mal by byť užitočný aj pre život ako taký. Šport dáva veľa príležitostí k sebazlepšovaniu a rozvíjaniu celej osobnosti. Dôležité je rôzne zážitky a skúsenosti v športe správne vyhodnocovať a vedieť ich využiť aj pre život. Kto sa takto rozvíja počas športovej kariéry, pre toho sa po jej ukončení začne písať nová a zaujímavá životná kapitola.

federer - pilot

 

102 názorov k “Osobnosť a šport

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